Ginkgo Biloba an Ancient Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine and Famous Living Fossil Tree in Modern Pharmaceutical Science

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Abstract
Pharmacognosy Communications,2020,10,4,xx-xx.
Published:June 2020
Type:Research Article

Ginkgo Biloba an Ancient Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine and Famous Living Fossil Tree in Modern Pharmaceutical Science

Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian1,2, Wenli Sun1,2, Qi Cheng1,2,*

1Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, CHINA.

2Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute Building, Chuangye Road, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, CHINA.

Abstract:

Introduction: Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is a so-called living fossil classified as a deciduous tree. G. biloba extract and the active ingredients of it is known for its anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, immunestimulative, antimicrobial hepato-protective and antioxidant activities, memory enhancement efficiency and beneficial effects against neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: Literature survey was performed using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct with both English and non-English references. Results: The most important active constituents of Ginkgo biloba extracts are flavones glycosides (primarily composed of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and terpene lactones (ginkgolides A, B and C and bilobalide) and other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids (hydroxykinurenic, kynurenic, protocatechic, vanillic, shikimic), D-glucaric acid, ginkgolic acid and related alkyphenols. Traditionally, ginkgo kernels are used as medicine or eaten as nuts and with the development of food technologies, ginkgo kernels have been processed into various products, such as canned foods, liquors and beverages. Conclusion: The most important clinical uses are in Alzheimer,s disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebral vascular insufficiency and impaired cerebral performance, premenstrual syndrome, antidepressantinduced sexual dysfunction, vascular disease, liver fibrosis, macular degeneration, tinnitus, vertigo, memory and cancer. Traditional Medicinal Asian Crops, development of modern drugs from Ginkgo should be emphasized.

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