Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of Indian Terminalia spp. Against the Pharyngitis Causing Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.

groupview

Abstract
Pharmacognosy Communications,2016,6,2,85-92.
Published:January 2016
Type:Original Article

Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of Indian Terminalia spp. Against the Pharyngitis Causing Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.

Mitchell Henry Wright,a Megan Sarah Jean Arnold,b Cameron Jay Lee,aReece Courtney,a,cAnthony Carlson Greene,a Ian Edwin Cock,a,c*

aSchool of Natural Sciences, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.

bEskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, GriffithUniversity, Queensland, Australia, 46 Don Young Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.

cEnvironmental Futures Research Institute, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.

Abstract:

Introduction: Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram positive pathogenic bacterium which cause a variety of diseases including streptococcal pharyngitis, impetigo and rheumatic heart disease, depending on which tissue it infects. Many Terminalia spp. have documented therapeutic properties as general antiseptics, inhibiting the growth of a wide variety of bacterial species. Methods: Solvent extracts were prepared using Indian Terminalia spp. with documented ethnobotanical usage to treat bacterial infections, or published antibacterial activity. The extracts were investigated by disc diffusion assay for the ability to inhibit the growth of aclinical strain of S. pyogenes. Their MIC values were determined to quantify and compare their efficacies. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: T. arjuna, T. catappa and T. chebula methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts displayed potent antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay against S. pyogenes. The T. catappa and T. chebulaethyl acetate extracts were particularly potent, with MIC values of 225 and 205 µg/mL respectively. All methanolic extracts were also potent growth inhibitors with MIC values of 268 µg/mL (T. arjunamethanolic extract), 425 µg/mL (T. catappa methanolic extract) and 300 µg/mL (T. chebula methanolic extract). The T. catappa hexane extract was also a potent S. pyogenesgrowth inhibitor (MIC 768 µg/mL). All other extracts were either ineffective or were of only low efficacy. Furthermore, all of the Indian Terminalia spp. extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay, with LC50 values >1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: The potent growth inhibitory bioactivity of the methanolic and ethyl acetate T. arjuna, T. catappa and T. chebula extracts against S. pyogenes demonstrates their potential for the treatment and prevention of pharyngitis, impetigo and rheumatic heart disease. All extractswere nontoxic indicating their safety for therapeutic use. 

Founded:  In 2004, as the PHCOG.NET – a non-profit private organization dedicated to Natural Products Research leading to develop promising drugs. Our main mission is to make information on herbal drug research readily available in different formats to suit the individual needs.

Pharmacognosy Communications [Phcog Commn.] is a new quarterly journal published by Phcog.Net. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to publish high quality original research articles, methods, techniques and evaluation reports, critical reviews, short communications, commentaries and editorials of all aspects of medicinal plant research. The journal is aimed at a broad readership, publishing articles on all aspects of pharmacognosy, and related fields. The journal aims to increase understanding of pharmacognosy as well as to direct and foster further research through the dissemination of scientific information by the  publication of manuscripts. The submission of original contributions in all areas of pharmacognosy are welcome.

The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmacognosy and natural products and drug design covering but not limited to the following topics:

  • Pharmacognosy and pharmacognistic investigations
  • Research based ethnopharmacological evaluations
  • Biological evaluation of crude extracts, essential oils and pure isolates
  • Natural product discovery and evaluation
  • Mechanistic studies
  • Method and technique development and evaluation
  • Isolation, identification and structural elucidation of natural products
  • Synthesis and transformation studies

Distinctions:  The most widely read, cited, and known Pharmacognosy Communications and website is well browsed with all the articles published. More than 20,000 readers in nearly every country in the world each month

Aim and Scope | Editorial Board | Indexed & Abstracted | Instruction to Authors | Manuscript Submission & Charges

Subjects Covered : Natural Products, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Marine Pharmacognosy and Zoo Pharmacognosy
ISSN :2249-0159 (Print) ; 2249-0167 (Online) Frequency : Quarterly Rapid at a time publication (4 issues/year)

Indexed and Abstracted in : Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS.
Rapid publication: Average time from submission to first decision is 30 days and from acceptance to In Press online  publication is 45 days.
Open Access Journal: Phcog Commn. is an open access journal, which allows authors to fund their article to be open access from publication.