Natural Methods for Preventing Fish Spoilage Using Indian Terminalia spp. Extracts: Growth Inhibition of Shewanella spp.

groupview

Abstract
Pharmacognosy Communications,2017,7,2,66-75.
Published:May 2017
Type:Original Article

Natural Methods for Preventing Fish Spoilage Using Indian Terminalia spp. Extracts: Growth Inhibition of Shewanella spp.

Samantha Jayde Webster1,2, Mitchell Henry Wright3, Anthony Carlson Greene2, Ian Edwin Cock1,2*

1Environmental Futures Research Institute, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

2School of Natural Sciences, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

3Institute of Environmental Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.

Abstract:

Introduction: Shewanella spp. are a major cause of fish spoilage. Terminalia spp. have a long history of medicinal uses, including being used to treat bacterial infections. Despite their well-established antibacterial properties, the Indian Terminalia spp. have not been tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of fish spoilage bacteria. Methods: Solvent extracts were prepared using Indian Terminalia spp. known to inhibit microbial growth. The growth inhibitory activity of the extracts was investigated by disc diffusion assay against four Shewanella spp. environmental isolates. Their MIC values were calculated to quantify and compare their relative efficacies. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: Extracts prepared from several Indian a. displayed potent antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay against the environmental Shewanella spp. isolates. The methanolic T. chebula fruit extract was particularly effective at inhibiting Shewanella spp. growth, with MIC values of 198, 329, 162 and 176 μg/mL against S. putrefaciens, S. baltica, S. frigidimarina and S. loihica respectively. The T. chebula fruit ethyl acetate and T. catappa fruit methanolic extracts were similarly potent, with MIC values generally substantially <1000 μg/mL against all Shewanella spp. In contrast, the T. catappa bark and all T. arjuna extracts were only moderate growth inhibitors (MIC values 1000-5000 μg/mL). All other extracts were either inactive or of only low growth inhibitory activity. All the extracts were nontoxic, with all recorded LC50 values substantially >1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: The potent growth inhibitory activity of the methanolic and ethyl acetate T. chebula fruit extracts against all Shewanella spp. indicates their potential in the prevention of fish spoilage. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity of these extracts indicates their suitability for use as natural fish preservatives.

Founded:  In 2004, as the PHCOG.NET – a non-profit private organization dedicated to Natural Products Research leading to develop promising drugs. Our main mission is to make information on herbal drug research readily available in different formats to suit the individual needs.

Pharmacognosy Communications [Phcog Commn.] is a new quarterly journal published by Phcog.Net. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to publish high quality original research articles, methods, techniques and evaluation reports, critical reviews, short communications, commentaries and editorials of all aspects of medicinal plant research. The journal is aimed at a broad readership, publishing articles on all aspects of pharmacognosy, and related fields. The journal aims to increase understanding of pharmacognosy as well as to direct and foster further research through the dissemination of scientific information by the  publication of manuscripts. The submission of original contributions in all areas of pharmacognosy are welcome.

The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmacognosy and natural products and drug design covering but not limited to the following topics:

  • Pharmacognosy and pharmacognistic investigations
  • Research based ethnopharmacological evaluations
  • Biological evaluation of crude extracts, essential oils and pure isolates
  • Natural product discovery and evaluation
  • Mechanistic studies
  • Method and technique development and evaluation
  • Isolation, identification and structural elucidation of natural products
  • Synthesis and transformation studies

Distinctions:  The most widely read, cited, and known Pharmacognosy Communications and website is well browsed with all the articles published. More than 20,000 readers in nearly every country in the world each month

Aim and Scope | Editorial Board | Indexed & Abstracted | Instruction to Authors | Manuscript Submission & Charges

Subjects Covered : Natural Products, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Marine Pharmacognosy and Zoo Pharmacognosy
ISSN :2249-0159 (Print) ; 2249-0167 (Online) Frequency : Quarterly Rapid at a time publication (4 issues/year)

Indexed and Abstracted in : Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS.
Rapid publication: Average time from submission to first decision is 30 days and from acceptance to In Press online  publication is 45 days.
Open Access Journal: Phcog Commn. is an open access journal, which allows authors to fund their article to be open access from publication.