Growth Inhibitory Activity of Selected Australian Syzygium Species against Malodour Forming Bacteria


Pharmacognosy Communications,,2017,7,3,129-136.
Published:September 2017
Type:Original Article

Growth Inhibitory Activity of Selected Australian Syzygium Species against Malodour Forming Bacteria

Aiden Joshua Wood,a Kane McManus,a Mitchell Henry Wright,b Anthony Carlson Greene,a Ian Edwin Cock,a,c,* 

aSchool of Natural Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Queensland, AUSTRALIA.

bDivision of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, Institute of Environmental Health, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

cEnvironmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Queensland, AUSTRALIA.


Background: Extracts produced from S. australe and S. luehmannii fruit and leaves are potent growth inhibitors of many bacterial pathogens. They may also inhibit the growth of malodour producing bacteria and thus be useful deodorant components, although this is yet to be tested. Methods: S. australe and S. luehmannii fruit and leaf solvent extracts were investigated by disc diffusion assays against significant bacterial contributors to axillary and plantar malodour formation. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: S. australe and S. luehmannii solvent extracts were good inhibitors of B. linens and C. jeikeium growth, with zones of inhibition up to 10 mm measured. S. australe extracts were generally better inhibitors of both bacterial species compared with the S. luehmannii extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts were particularly potent, with MIC values of 300 and 857 μg/mL for the S. australe fruit and leaf extracts respectively against B. linens, and 1000 and 311 μg/mL against C. jeikeium. The S. luehmannii fruit ethyl acetate extracts were similarly potent growth inhibitors, with MIC values of 571 and 203 μg/mL against B. linens and C. jeikeium respectively. S. australe aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts were also potent inhibitors of C. jeikeium (MIC’s of 285 and 306 μg/mL respectively). All other extracts had moderate or low inhibitory activity. All of the most potent ethyl acetate extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay. In contrast, the methanolic and aqueous S. australe leaf extracts, as well as the aqueous and methanolic S. luehmannii fruit extracts displayed apparent toxicity. However, these results may be fallacious and instead result from the high antioxidant content of these extracts. Conclusion: The potent growth inhibition of axillary and plantar malodour producing bacteria by the Syzygium spp. extracts indicate their potential as deodorant components.

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