Antony Letoyah Yiaile1,2*, James Mucunu Mbaria2, Isaac Mpapuluu Ole-Mapenay2, Mitchel Otieno Okumu2, Abdi Hussein Hadun2, Jared Misonge Onyancha3
1Department of Pharmacy, University Health Services, Maasai Mara University, P.O. Box 861-20500, Narok, KENYA.
2Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, KENYA.
3Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kenya Methodist University, P.O BOX 267-60200 Meru, KENYA.
Published: January 2018
Type: Original Article
Background: The use of conventional cancer medication is limited by cytotoxicity on normal cells, intolerability of the drugs used and emergence of aggressive tumors which do not respond to treatment. Herbal alternatives are now being touted to be of promising efficacy. Fagaropsis angolensis (FA) has wide ranging ethno medicinal uses in Kenya. However, the anticancer potential of this plant is yet to be fully explored. The present study aims to determine the antiproliferative activity of crude extracts of Fagaropsis angolensis (FA) against African monkey kidney (Vero, E6), throat cancer (Hep2) and colon cancer (CT 26-CL 25) cell lines. Methods: Water and methanol extracts of FA were qualitatively screened to determine their phytochemical composition. In vitro growth inhibition capacity of these extracts on African monkey kidney (Vero, E6), throat cancer (HeP2) and colon cancer (CT-26-CL-25) cell lines was then assessed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium assay and expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Doxorubicin (standard anticancer agent) was used for comparison. Results: On Vero cell lines, statistical differences (p<0.05) were noted in the IC50 values of methanol whole root and methanol root stem extracts of FA (5.80+/-0.80μg/ml) against 1.10+/-0.70μg/ml) as well as between Doxorubicin and methanol root stem extracts of FA (6.5+/-3.25 μg/ml against 1.10+/-0.70μg/ml). On colon cancer cell lines, statistical differences (p<0.05) were noted between the IC50 values of Doxorubicin and the methanol root stem extract of FA (19.00+/-9.00ug/ml against 8.33+/-1.42μg/ml) as well as between Doxorubicin and methanol whole root extract of FA (19.00+/-9.00μg/ml against 5.25+/-0.35μg/ml). The effects of the extracts of FA on throat cancer cell lines were unremarkable. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the choice of solvent may have some effect on the IC50 values of the extracts on cancer cell lines. It may also be suggested that the methanol root stem and whole root extracts of FA may be sources of important lead molecules that may be useful in the treatment of colon cancer. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the methanol root stem and whole root extracts of FA may be sources of important lead molecules in cancer therapy.
Key words: Fagaropsis angolensis, Kenya, Cancer, Doxorubicin.