Sunita Shailajan1,*, Sasikumar Menon2, Savita Kulkarni3, Bhavesh Tiwari1
1Department of Botany, Herbal Research Laboratory, Ramnarain Ruia College, Mumbai, INDIA.
2Institute for Advanced Training and Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences (TDM Laboratory), Mumbai, INDIA.
3Radiation Medicine Centre, Bio-Medical Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA.
Published: March 2016
Type: Original Article
Background: Mangifera indica L.; the largest fruit-tree found in India, is an important component of indigenous medical systems. Mangifera indica L. leaves (MIL) have been reported to possess various biological activities and thus, can be a useful source of substances for drug development. Although the leaves have been traditionally used as antibacterial and immunomodulatory agent, there is a paucity of scientific data in support of their efficacy. The purpose of this study was an in-depth evaluation of antimycobacterial and immunomodulatory activity of a standardized extract of MIL. Material and Methods: The hexane extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves (HEMIL) was prepared and standardized. Chromatographic characterization of HEMIL was done using validated HPLC and GC-MS/MS technique. HEMIL was evaluated for antimycobacterial and immunomodulatory activity by using various in vitro and in vivo assays. Results and Discussion: HEMIL showed lupeol and stigmasterol content of 21.04 ± 0.03 mg/g and 16.99 ± 0.04 mg/g, respectively; and total terpenoids content of 112.55 ± 2.16 mg LE/g. GC-MS/MS characterization of the extract confirmed the presence of lupeol and stigmasterol and revealed five other phytochemical constituents. The safety of HEMIL was established in vitro and in vivo. HEMIL showed concentration-dependent inhibition of MTB as evident in REMA and radiorespirometry. HEMIL was also found efficacious in immunomodulatory evaluations using RAW 264.7 cells, human PBMCs, cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppressed mice and SRBCs stimulated mice. Conclusion: The promising results not only support the traditional claim of MIL as antibacterial and immunomodulatory agent but also provide data on their use in food supplements for immuno-pharmacological use.
Key words: Mangifera indica L. Leaves, Triterpenoids, Chromatography, Safety, Efficacy.