Bioactive constituents of Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell: A pharmacognistic approach towards the prevention and treatment of yersiniosis


Pharmacognosy Communications,2016,6,3,152-163.
Published:March 2016
Type:Original Article

Bioactive constituents of Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell: A pharmacognistic approach towards the prevention and treatment of yersiniosis

Mitchell Henry Wright1, Megan Sarah Jean Arnold1,2, Huda Aldosary1, Joseph Sirdaarta1,3, Anthony Carlson Greene1, Ian Edwin Cock1,3*

1School of Natural Sciences, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.

2Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University,46 Don Young Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.

3Environmental Futures Research Institute, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Queensland 4111, AUSTRALIA.


Introduction: Yersinia enterocolitica is a facultatively anaerobic gram negativebacterium which contaminates meat products causing the acute gastrointestinal disease yersiniosis. Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum, gubinge) is an Australian fruit with an extremely high antioxidant capacity. It was used therapeutically by the first Australians and has documentedantiseptic properties against an extensive panel of bacteria. Despite this, it has not been tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of Y. enterocolitica. Methods: T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf extracts were extracted by maceration and the extracts were investigated by disc diffusion assay for growth inhibitory activity against a clinical strain of Y. enterocolitica. The MIC values of the extractswere determined to quantify and compare their efficacies. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. The most potent extracts were investigated using non-targeted GC-MS analysis (with screening against a compound database) for the identification and characterisation of individual components in the crude plant extracts. Results: Solvent extractions of T. ferdinandiana leaf and fruit displayed good growth inhibitory activity in the disc diffusion assay against Y. enterocolitica. The methanolic T. ferdinandiana leaf and fruitextracts, as well as the fruit ethyl acetate extract, were particularly potent growth inhibitors, with MIC values of 372, 123 and 285 µg/mL respectively. The aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts alsodisplayed good growth inhibitory activity against Y. enterocolitica, albeit with higher MIC values (588 and 1100 µg/mL respectively). All other extracts were either lowefficacy, or completely devoid of growth inhibitory activity. All T. ferdinandiana leaf and fruit extracts were either nontoxic (LC50 values <1000 µg/mL) or of low toxicity in the Artemia franciscana bioassay. Non-biased GC-MS phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extractsputatively identified and highlighted several compounds that may contribute to the ability of these extracts to inhibit the growth of Y. enterocolitica. Conclusions: The lack of toxicity and the potent growth inhibitory bioactivity of the T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf methanolic extracts against Y. Enterocolitica indicates their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of yersiniosis. 

Founded:  In 2004, as the PHCOG.NET – a non-profit private organization dedicated to Natural Products Research leading to develop promising drugs. Our main mission is to make information on herbal drug research readily available in different formats to suit the individual needs.

Pharmacognosy Communications [Phcog Commn.] is a new quarterly journal published by Phcog.Net. It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to publish high quality original research articles, methods, techniques and evaluation reports, critical reviews, short communications, commentaries and editorials of all aspects of medicinal plant research. The journal is aimed at a broad readership, publishing articles on all aspects of pharmacognosy, and related fields. The journal aims to increase understanding of pharmacognosy as well as to direct and foster further research through the dissemination of scientific information by the  publication of manuscripts. The submission of original contributions in all areas of pharmacognosy are welcome.

The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmacognosy and natural products and drug design covering but not limited to the following topics:

  • Pharmacognosy and pharmacognistic investigations
  • Research based ethnopharmacological evaluations
  • Biological evaluation of crude extracts, essential oils and pure isolates
  • Natural product discovery and evaluation
  • Mechanistic studies
  • Method and technique development and evaluation
  • Isolation, identification and structural elucidation of natural products
  • Synthesis and transformation studies

Distinctions:  The most widely read, cited, and known Pharmacognosy Communications and website is well browsed with all the articles published. More than 20,000 readers in nearly every country in the world each month

Aim and Scope | Editorial Board | Indexed & Abstracted | Instruction to Authors | Manuscript Submission & Charges

Subjects Covered : Natural Products, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Marine Pharmacognosy and Zoo Pharmacognosy
ISSN :2249-0159 (Print) ; 2249-0167 (Online) Frequency : Quarterly Rapid at a time publication (4 issues/year)

Indexed and Abstracted in : Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS.
Rapid publication: Average time from submission to first decision is 30 days and from acceptance to In Press online  publication is 45 days.
Open Access Journal: Phcog Commn. is an open access journal, which allows authors to fund their article to be open access from publication.